Geography is one of the classical earth sciences. It researches the relationships between the Earth and human society as well as those between humans and the environment.
In order to understand our planet habitat, which is undergoing constant change, it is necessary to regard the Earth as a holistic system, that means within the context of all its various subsystems taken together – the lithosphere (rocks), cryosphere (ice), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), biosphere (plants and animals), pedosphere (soil) and the anthroposphere (living space influenced by humans).
Geography is a spatial science which can be pursued both as a natural science as well as a social and human science. It is the investigation of the geo-ecosphere on the one hand, and of society and its spatial claims on our physical environment on the other. Physical Geography examines the influence of natural geofactors on the human habitat, whereas human geography analyses human activities, the resulting spatial structures and the processes which steer these. The exceptional position the subject occupies in being a natural, social as well as a human science and the multitude of research objects and processes arising from the areas of contact between humans and their environment calls for close collaboration with numerous neighbouring sciences. This has caused geography to develop from a systematically-descriptive to a causal-analytical science.